Nadiia Adamenko (Kyiv/Ukraine)
Today’s urgent call is to transform the education system into something more appropriate to the real needs of the 21st century, fundamentally rethinking human intelligence. This task has been set within the reform of the Ukrainian legislation of the education system in recent years. It is declared in the concept of "New Ukrainian School" and is the basis of the Law of Ukraine "On Education". This "new" law, passed by the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine on September 5, 2017, replaced the "old" law, which had been in place since 1991, the year of Ukraine's independence. So the "old" system of education, being formed on the principle of necessity, demonstrated its ineffective mechanism of action through a system of prohibitions and oppressions. The "new" system of education, being built on the principle of freedom, counts on being effective by rejecting necessity and excluding coercion.
However, the methodological mistake of creating something new by destroying the old and ineffective becomes obvious. Relying on freedom is not supposed to mean a careless attitude towards learning, as opposed to seriousness. Personal effort must be put into the place of coercion as a necessity. Our concept is based on the prohibition of giving up on obligation and disclosing your talents through overcoming weaknesses. It is about seeing boundaries as a creative transformation of freedom.
For us, the educators of the PRAXIS School of Thinking and Communication, it has become a major challenge when working towards the development of philosophy with children and young people. According to the polish philosopher Roman Ingarden, the question "Who am I?” can be answered: I am a force that multiplies itself, builds itself, and outgrows itself to the extent that it is able to build rather than crumble into the smallest of moments, giving in to suffering or indulging in pleasure. A force that resists destiny when it feels and knows that by its free act it saves from nihility things, which will remain after it burns in the struggle. In this context, we see the necessity not as "not freedom" but as a declaration of freedom. This is a moment when awareness of one's talent comes not from its "discovery", but from freedom itself without determination, beyond cause-consequence connection, that is, from the Self or obedience to oneself. Therefore, necessity is the ability to understand one's gift through oneself. Not through references to the relic of the old system of education and the choice of new approaches, but beyond any external authority.
Werner Anzenberger (Graz/Austria)
2. Zivilisatorischer Fortschritt
3. Politische Kulturtechniken
4. Der Status
5. Die Eigenverantwortung
7. Die "Fallstricke"
8. Die Werte - "Das Commitment"
David Lara Catalán (Hemet/USA)
Undoubtedly the use of language and everything we build based on it; it is a great feature of humans. Throughout language we have the possibility, according with John Austin, of expressing petitions, orders, wishes, commands, etcetera. The intersubjectivity action guided by the language gives us an opportunity to share from each other views, to offer arguments and in a further sense gives us the opportunity of building our world. When I say world, I mean the world built and shared through language and in which we develop our personalities.
Language, of course, gives us the power to create our institutionalism. Discovering this power is a way to give the human beings a chance to express a voice, an opinion, it is a way to recognize the existence of a huge plurality, it is a way to understand the deep differences between us all and how, in spite of all these differences, we can live together, understanding and sharing each other. It´s the proper form of expressing our rationality.
The community of inquiry is the best way to teach our children the power of language, an unlimited activity to conceive, design, and express their views and to listen and respect others´ views. Of course, this activity requires an analogy between the classroom and the world outside. The point is to recreate the exterior world inside the classroom, such as a mini world. I mean a world with all its moral, social, economic and political complexity. This world requires the need of being known, explored, discussed, understood, through books, magazines, movies, chats, and especially with respect of each one.
The community of inquiry is based on the acknowledgement of the deep differences of learning, understanding, to accept multiculturalism, and different cognitive abilities, among others. It is also the space where teachers are not the only voice, but a voice which allows the discussion and cheer to the students to investigate, demonstrate, to fail and to find a way for self-correction, in a further sense the community of inquiry allows to the students to be convinced about their own and different arguments. It´s the correct space to recreate power, I mean the power which guides us toward a world built not just for a few, but a world built for each one.
Lorenz Moises J. Festin (Manila/Philippines)
Making sense of the prospect of peace and justice in the current world order requires recognition and acceptance of the distinct trait that marks our social and individual lives today. Looking into the way we live out our day-to-day existence and carry out our everyday chores, we cannot fail to acknowledge how technology in its never-ending advance has radicalized and penetrated deeply into every facet of human life. The progress it underwent has undoubtedly involved everyone in the world. And no one is excluded from the endless advantages it brings, including the greater power it affords humanity, the efficiency it allows us in doing our tasks, the ease and speed it lends to our means of communication and transportation. And yet its downside has also affected everyone. While technology has given humanity tremendous power, such power has become more and more concentrated in the hands of the few, particularly the moneyed who can finance its further development. It has likewise brought about social disintegration. People have learned to be self-sufficient, and have forgotten the impact it bears on environment and on other people. Experts in the field of technology have even employed it to exploit the masses, such as the manipulation of people’s preferences and political opinions. And people in general have likewise not been always responsible with their newly discovered power in technology. Confronted by this reality, we can only wonder how peace and justice can flourish in such an environment. Indeed there is a pressing need not only to reconsider the foundation of these two important human values but also to rethink how they can be promoted in our times. In this paper, I would like then to probe into the dynamics of technology and common good, which I consider as concrete embodiment of peace and justice. The promotion of peace and order in society has surely been the accepted or at least presumed purpose of every government and state, while justice is the goal of every human law. As such, they are to be regarded as basic components of the common good. And it is in view of this that technology, in its incessant progress and with all the advantages and disadvantages it entails, needs to be considered as a significant factor and player in the pursuit of the common good.
Jen Glaser (Jerusalem/Israel)
We are living through a time when many democracies are struggling to face up to the challenges of providing for the future flourishing of human beings on this planet. In this session I will argue that human flourishing – our ability to live a sustainable, generative form of life that aims toward justice - depends on our ability as citizens to live a form of life that holds philosophical inquiry and political action accountable to one another. This accountability is critical to the health of any deliberative justice-oriented democracy. I will suggest that the Community of philosophical Inquiry is an ideal place to induct children into such a form of life.
One political theorist and philosopher who had a lot to say about the relationship between the world of thinking (philosophy) and the world of action (politics) is Hannah Arendt. In this session I will set out to examine three core Arendtian ideas that can inform our understanding of the normative dimensions of a community of philosophical inquiry as both a public and political space. In particular, I shall be exploring Arendt’s concept of:
(I) The Public Sphere, a space marked by plurality and solidarity in which people seek to engage in public -or representational – thinking and meet one another as equals;
(II) Worldliness, whereby citizens – people of the world – are required to ‘love the world’ enough to seek its future flourishing. For Arendt, love of the world is a normative stance we consciously assume and provides the conditions for establishing a shared life. It is part of what it means to be responsible to our existence as human beings.
(III) Civic Courage, whereby a responsibility of the philosopher is to engage with questions of truth and meaning and to unflinchingly represent those ideas in the world of action.
Bernhard Heiden, Bianca Tonino-Heiden (Villach/Austria)
Nowadays the Artificial Intelligence (AI) paradigm is increasingly pervading our lives and our working environments. The effects of AI on our world as an increasing Popper’s world III application and implementation, by this, are emanating and increasing the interconnection of world I and II by means of a changing physical environment through AI-devices and a change in consciousness. This, as consequence, leads to different teaching methods and concerns philosophy deeply.
The core of this development can be seen two-folded: Firstly by the mechanization of work as a result of the first industrial revolution and secondly by the mechanization of thought by means of machines. Up to the 1970’s the procedural paradigm in programming prevailed. Since then the logic oriented programming was implemented, with PROLOG as an important logical-programming computer language, which realized Wittgenstein’s foundation of language as a collection of thoughts in a language, and the assumption that the natural language is based on logic, equivalent to other formal logic language implementations. By this the logic base, according to the correspondence theory, "Wahr ist was den Tatsachen entspricht", which goes back to the Aristotelean discovery of logic, is formulated algorithmically as a computer language. In our application case, we use PROLOG, that has mainly declarative use or can by regarded approximately equivalent to the formal logic of predicate logic, which is then called clausal logic. With these properties of PROLOG, it is in principle possible to “speak” (nearly) with the computer application in natural language. The idea of the work presented here is to implement a children philosophy application of logical reasoning, as a backup of the evident mental logic solution, with a PROLOG implementation and hence an algorithmic solution of queries to the story. For this, some examples are given for a part of PIXIE’s children’s philosophy tutorial and its parallel SWI-PROLOG implementation.
The example sentences are analyzed and brought into predicates. Those predicates are then (1) formulated and implemented in PROLOG as the database of knowledge or facts. (2) The logical relations are then implemented in a second step as a rule set, as well as auxiliary conditions and constraints. With this the children philosophical story is set as a data set, containing all the necessary logical content which is stored in a file. (3) Finally, the query is formulated, out of a query as a question in the context of the database of facts as well as predicates and rules are defined. The question itself has a logical structure. The answers can then be compared with the answers that are given by natural language reasoning, based on the same story or sentences. The logical sentence analysis is supported by a material which is designed according to the generalized Montessori principle of Heiden.
For (1),(2) and (3) there takes place a logical analysis of sentences. This is supported by a material, a logic-construction-set, containing plates, which stand for the (i) predicates and their arity (1,2,3..), logical (ii) operators (
Frank Irmler und Antje Knopf (Leipzig/Germany)
Eine gelingende Verzahnung von Theorie und Praxis in den lehramtsbildenden Studiengängen ist nach wie vor Gegenstand öffentlicher Diskussionen. Dieser Forderung begegnen die philosophiedidaktischen Anteile des Studiums zumeist durch die Verankerung eines Praktikumsberichts in der jeweiligen Prüfungsordnung. In diesem sollen die Studierenden ihre schulpraktischen Erfahrungen einer von fachdidaktischen Theorien geleiteten Reflexion unterziehen. Vielen Studierenden fällt es jedoch trotz tutorieller Begleitung schwer, die aus dem Seminar bekannten philosophiedidaktischen Prinzipien zur Planung und kritischen Reflexion einer Unterrichtsequenz zu nutzen sowie konkrete Konzeptionen vor dem Hintergrund ihrer Erfahrungen zu hinterfragen. Zudem werden als problematisch empfundene oder in ihrer Relevanz nicht wahrgenommene Anteile der Stunde im Praktikumsbericht oftmals ausgespart, obwohl gerade diese ein Fortkommen bezüglich pädagogisch-didaktischer Kompetenzen ermöglichen würden. Daher ist zu fragen, ob der vielerorts verwendete Praktikumsbericht noch Mittel eines zeitgemäßen und reflexiv angelegten Lehramtsstudiums sein sollte oder durch ein anderes, sachdienliches Medium abzulösen ist.
Das empirisch angelegte Forschungsprojekt "Der Analytical Short Film als Instrument zur Förderung von Reflexionsfähigkeit und Problembewusstsein in der Fachdidaktik Philosophie" bemüht sich um eine Nutzbarmachung des Analytical-Short-Film-Verfahrens (Prantl & Wallbaum 2016). Er soll es den Studierenden erleichtern, fachdidaktisches Wissen mit ihren Praxiserfahrungen zu verknüpfen. Durch tutorielle Begleitung werden die Studierenden befähigt, Videomaterial ihres Unterrichtsversuchs aufzunehmen und mittels eines online basierten Bearbeitungsprogramms zu einem drei- bis fünfminütigen Analytical Short Film zu schneiden.
Die zu begründende Auswahl der Sequenzen wird anschließend im Seminar zu grundlegenden Prinzipien des Philosophieunterrichts befragt. Ob diese praxisorientierte Gruppenreflexion von Analytical Short Films in der Lehramtsausbildung zu einer Verbesserung des Problembewusstseins und der Reflexionsfähigkeit der angehenden Lehrkräfte gegenüber dem alten Prüfungsformat des Praktikumsberichts führt und bezüglich des Arbeitsaufwands der Hochschullehrenden eine höhere Effizienz verspricht, soll anhand der Auswertung der Ergebnisse des Projekts diskutiert werden. Dies beinhaltet auch Einblicke in die von den Studierenden erstellten Analytical Shortfilms.
Das Projekt wurde von Frank Irmler (abgeordnete Lehrkraft im Hochschuldienst, Fachdidaktik Philosophie am Institut für Philosophie der Universität Leipzig) und Antje Knopf (MA Lehramt Philosophie/Ethik) durchgeführt und ausgewertet.
Evelina Ivanova-Vardyhizska (Sofia/Bulgaria)
Im Kontext von Philosophieren mit Kindern ist es unumgänglich, Bildungsprozesse in einer Korrelation mit dem Begriff "Forschungsgemeinschaft" zu denken. Damit die Lehrer die sozialen Aspekte des Lernens unterstützen können, indem sie Forschergemeischaften in Klassen und Schulen aufbauen und fördern, brauchen sie auch eigene Erfolgserfahrungen, wie man voneinander und zusammen lernen und Unterrichtserfahrungen austauschen kann. Die erwartete Auswirkung der Bildung, zur Weiterentwicklung einer toleranten, demokratischen und kooperationsfähigen Gesellschaft beizutragen, kann nicht erfolgen ohne Bemühungen, die entsprechenden Fach- und Persönlichkeitskompetenzen von Lehrern und Schülern aufzubauen.
Die gegenwärtige Situation im Bildungswesen weltweit zeichnet sich durch hohe Komplexität und steigende Dynamik. Werden die Lehrer nur sich selbst überlassen, droht die Gefahr, dass ihre Qualifizierung, ihre persönliche Entwicklung, Motivation und Enthusiasmus schnell nachlassen.
Auf diesem Hintergrund entstand ein gemeinsames Projekt der philosophischen Fakultät an der "Paisii Hilendarski" Universität zu Plovdiv und des Plovdiver Schulamtes, welches daraif abzielt, einen sicheren, anregenden und unterstützenden dialogischen Raum zu schaffen, wo Lehrer in Philosophie und Bürgererziehung einander treffen können und mit Universitätsdozenten oder Vertretern von Vereinen und Bürgerorganisationen über aktuelle Probleme der Philosophie, der Philosophiedidaktik und des politischen und gesellschaftlichen Lebens diskutieren können. Der "Klub für Enthusiasmus und Professionalismus" besteht seit 4 Jahren und bietet vielfältige Arbeitsformen an: kurze Gästevorträge mit anschließender Diskussion, Workshops, interaktive Veranstaltungen, Erfahrungsaustausch, kurze Trainings- und Fortbildungseinheiten. Besonders hervorzuheben sind die Workshops, wo praktische Instrumente und Unterrichtselemente in innovativen Gebieten wie z.B. Philosophieren mit Filmen oder Einsatz von Spielen im Unterricht vorgestellt, ausprobiert und zusammen weiterentwickelt werden. Sehr gut ist die Zusammenarbeit mit gemeinnützigen Vereinen, welche Bildungsprojekte zur Entwicklung einer demokratischen Kultur verwirklichen.
Projekte wie unser "Klub für Enthusiasmus und Professionalismus" könnten entscheidend die Fortbildung und Motivation von Lehrern fördern. Positive Pilotergebnisse könnten Argumente für Änderungen der Bildungspolitik auf Schul-, Regional- und Landesebene anbieten, damit zukunftsträchtige Einstellungen, Werte und Kompetenzen vermittelt werden können.
Isabelle Jespers (Brüssel/Belgium)
In this paper, I will advocate the relevance and the future perspectives of practising Philosophy for Children in schools as a mean to tackle 2 major issues challenging peace and threatening democracy in our post-modern societies: 1/ the crisis of transmission in an era of globalization/digitalization, 2/ the problem of planned obsolescence. These 2 issues are in many ways interconnected. Due to the development of social media and the impact of the virtual world in our everyday lives, children and adults are faced with a new "moral and existential imperative" forcing them to communicate at all times and everywhere.
The crisis of transmission is visible in many fields but especially in education and amongst children. The gap between our technological environment and the school environment is growing exponentially. It confronts us (adults and educators) with the major responsibility to preserve a peaceful and safe future for ourselves and our environment in a context of uncertainty and disruption. Is Prometheus unbound transforming into a monster or should we re-evaluate this figure in the light of the promises of social change and progress he offers?
Transmission is a major need that has to be distinguished from communication, it is problematic by definition. Transmission in not immediate but mediate : it requires a time and a space to grow, With the constant threat of obsolescence and the dogma of "unlimited growth", the roots of our humanistic legacy are severely endangered, especially since most children have no direct experience anymore of a world before internet and no access to alternative and diversified cultural resources.
Philosophy for Children has consequently an important role to play in the transmission of our humanistic values. Matthew Lipman acts as a transmitter of humanism and a promoter of peace against the current trend of some thinkers and decision-makers who bet on the obsolescence of humanity itself .On focussing on inquiry and freedom rather than on dogma and determinism, his revolutionary paradigm means a shift in the way we think and trust our children to become better thinkers and citizens.
Bae Jiyun (Hiroshima/Japan)
The purpose of this paper is to suggest "somaesthetics for children" as a way of "philosophy for children," somaesthetics as a clue which is a novel challenge in shaping a new genre of philosophy. Somaesthetics, a pragmatism project suggested and coined by Richard Shusterman, focuses on the body and its experience as a springboard for understanding and improving ourselves and the world. It understands the body as a holistic self rather than merely on the physical level. It focuses on the role of the body that has been neglected in traditional philosophy and aesthetics, especially regarding improving the individual’s way of life.
Significances of "somaesthetics for children" will be examined mainly on two dimensions. One is on an analytic somaesthetics, and the other is on the pragmatic and practical somaesthetics.
Firstly, analytic somaesthetics can provide abundant philosophical resources regarding the body to philosophy for children. One of those themes is a doubleness of the body. While the understanding of the body in the choice of mind-body dualism or monism is generally prevalent, somaesthetics goes beyond those understanding and suspect duality, contradiction, and ambiguity of the body and emphasize that it is never easy to understand the concept of the body. The body has an innate contradiction of doubleness that cannot coexist at first glance. If this is the intrinsic quality of the body and its experience, "doubleness" based on the body should be one of the philosophical themes to understand the self and the world.
Secondly, as pragmatic and practical somaesthetics for children, contemplative practices would be suggested. While there are limits and problems of those practices in school education as seen in the US and Japan, it has philosophical meaning from the viewpoint of somaesthetics considering 1)it inform us of our feelings and help us to control them, 2)it gives us better control of our actions, and 3)it helps to retrain our habits. Additionally, an example of somaesthetics contemplative practice will be examined.
Bahar Khazei (Vancouver/Canada)
The role of the facilitator in a community of inquiry might appear as a clear and straightforward position. However, as we look deeper at what a facilitator is capable of, one should wonder what truly is and isn’t a facilitator’s responsibility? The facilitator is the one who introduces the method of philosophical inquiry to children and models how a community of inquiry should form. This person has the privilege to demonstrate a democratic community that strives for peace and justice. On the other hand, a facilitator also has the power to model a community that does not value justice. Here I ask, what should be the role of a facilitator?
Does this role consist of a pure mechanical demonstration or is facilitator morally responsible for engaging students in a community of philosophical inquiry. The main motivation for this topic comes from my own experience as an immigrant educator, facilitating philosophical inquiries with children. I have observed different styles of facilitation in diverse communities and have noticed how children respond to these differences. I will first provide an overview on Lipman’s P4C as well as other theories of practicing philosophical inquiry with children from around the world. Subsequently, I summarize the different roles of the facilitator into three general categories:
1. Facilitator as the owner of the philosophical inquiry,
Here I include the benefits and negative consequences of different facilitation styles and compare and contrast their impression on the inquirers. I will then argue that certain qualities of the three roles are crucial in the success of a facilitator responsible for the community of inquirers. Lastly, I analyze the role of the facilitator in relation to the challenge of powers in the community of inquiry. In Lipman’s method, the student-teacher power balance is being re-examined. This challenge of powers was inspired by theories of Paulo Freire (Kennedy, 2004; Scrimsher et al., 2013). I end this conversation by inquiring what is the most just approach to having a community of inquiry.
Alexandria Krug (Leipzig/Germany)
Zukunftsfähigkeit, tragfähiges Wissen und nachhaltige Handlungs- und Gestaltungs-kompetenz sind Ziele, die eine fundamentale Rolle angesichts gesamtgesellschaftlicher Herausforderungen in der Weltbevölkerung, in der Bildungsprozessgestaltung und in einem transformierenden Bildungsdiskurs einnehmen (vgl. de Haan, 2018, S. 7). Die Demonstrationen "Fridays for Future" sind ein Zeichen für die eklatante Klimawandelproblematik, aber auch zugleich ein Signum für die unterschiedliche Wahrnehmung und Einstufung dieses fundamentalen Menschheitsproblems in den Generationen. Aber müssen wir nach moralischen Prinzipien handeln? Sind wir moralisch verpflichtet, den menschengemachten Anteil am Klimawandel zu verringern und wie kann eine moralische Positionierung aussehen? Was denken Kinder darüber? Wie lassen sich adaptiv nachhaltige Bildungskontexte gestalten und was müssen sie beinhalten? In diesem Vortrag soll die Vorstellung eines Dissertationsvorhabens erfolgen, dass sich transdisziplinär mit mentalen Modellen und klimaethischen sowie gerechtigkeitstheoretischen Perspektiven zum Klimawandel von Grundschulkindern befasst. Mentale Modelle als Erkenntnismittel stammen aus einer konstruktivistischen Tradition der Kognitionswissenschaften (vgl. Seel 1991, S. 9). Die kognitive Repräsentation der Welt und ihrer Phänomene qua mentaler Modelle bezieht sich auf einen Ausschnitt der realen Welt, der aufgrund der Analogie und strukturellen Gefasstheit der Modellrelation ein komplexes Gefüge darstellt (vgl. Dutke 1994, S. 2). Ein ebenso komplexes Phänomen ist der Klimawandel. Zum einen wirken natürliche Prozesse, zum anderen sind der Mensch, seine Lebens- und Produktionsweise sowie sein Konsumverhalten die maßgeblichen Ursachen für die anthropogen verursachte, rapide Erderwärmung (vgl. Brönnimann, 2018, S. 291-295; IPCC, 2015, S. 4f.; Schönwiese, 2013, S. 337-341). Was wissen Grundschulkinder darüber? Welche Ursachen, Folgen Alexandria Krug firstname.lastname@example.org 0341 97 31598 Erziehungswissenschaftliche Fakultät Institut für Pädagogik und Didaktik im Elementar- und Primarbereich Grundschuldidaktik Sachunterricht u. b. B. v. Naturwissenschaft und Technik und Gegenmaßnahmen beschreiben sie? Wie bewerten sie den Klimawandel? Welche Akteure identifizieren sie und welche ethischen Argumente/ Positionen sind erkennbar? Die Klimaethik befasst sich mit der Frage der Verpflichtung für etwas bzw. gegenüber etwas (vgl. Roser & Seidel, 2015, S. 4). Das gerechtigkeitstheoretische Leitprinzip der BNE besteht in der intergenerationellen Gerechtigkeit, die aber nicht die einzige Form im klimaethischen Gerechtigkeitsdiskurs darstellt. Neben dem Gleichheitsprinzip werden Positionen des Suffizienziarismus, der Tugendethik, des Utilitarismus, des Prioritarismus (vgl. Gesang, 2011, S. 48-73) oder eine "universalistische Diskursethik" (Ekardt, 2012, S.157) vertreten. Durch ein qualitatives Design sollen mittels Konstruktinterviews und Concept Maps sowie Kinderzeichnungen in einer ersten Prä-Pilotierungsphase (N = 6) mentale Modelle identifiziert und qua qualitativer Inhaltsanalyse nach Kuckartz (2018) Kategorien abgeleitet werden, um darauf aufbauend in eine weitere Interviewphase mit größerer Stichprobe zu gehen. Ziel dieser Forschung ist die Identifikation mentaler Modelle von Grundschulkindern zum Klimawandel, um anschließend adaptive, klimaethische Dilemmasituationen zu entwerfen, mit denen im Philosophieren mit Kindern im Sachunterricht dialogisch-reflexiv diskutiert werden kann. Damit soll ein Beitrag für eine kritisch-diskursive und zukunftsfähige Bildungsarbeit sowie ein konkreter fach-didaktischer Ansatz zum nachhaltigen Umgang mit diesem "epochaltypischen Schlüssel-problem" (Klafki, 2007, S. 58) geleistet werden.
Allison Lide (White Salmon/USA)
The mechanical worldview was found to be extremely effective in controlling and predicting the behavior of the material world, defining it in terms of linearity, hierarchy, competition, reductionism, objectivity, and empiricism. When this worldview was applied to traditional education, such characteristics became the structural basis for conceptualizing education in mechanical terms. Children’s minds have been inevitably influenced by this mechanical, reductionist interpretation of the world, often resulting in a fragmented, hierarchical, transactional interpretation of the world.
In contrast, the participatory ecological worldview as promoted by thinkers like Gregory Bateson, Alfred North Whitehead, et al, offers a holistic, systems-based approach. This worldview brought to the forefront a set of priorities distinctly different from the mechanical worldview, emphasizing interdependence, non-linearity, process, relationship, and systems. When this holistic worldview is applied to educational philosophy and systems, it can have a very positive effect on children’s development and understanding of the world. Since 1907, Montessori education has offered an alternative educational approach with a structure that is very closely aligned with this worldview as well as process philosophy. Today, the form and function of a Montessori classroom embodies the essential characteristics of this ecological worldview, with children spending their days in an educational setting grounded in philosophical underpinnings such as interdependence, non-linearity, relationship, and process. Contemplation is authentically optimized, and children tend to acquire an experiential understanding of natural interconnection. Their development is influenced by the fluid, emergent nature of the learning environment itself.
In this presentation, the essential structural characteristics of the Montessori educational approach that promote the development of a more philosophically-inclined and holistic worldview will be shown, demonstrating how it actually manifests in the classroom. The curricular approach that provides a formative conceptual foundation of interdependence will be outlined. Also, anecdotal classroom experiences and comparative classroom outcomes (relative to traditional education) will be shared.
This philosophical approach to education offers great potential for the enhancement of children’s engagement with the world as they grow up, something that is critical in a time that requires global clarity, flexibility, and an awareness of interconnection.
Alessandra Macaione (Crif/Italy)
The transformations resulting from globalization have imposed on the legal and political sciences a revision of the concepts of peace and justice: the first understood no longer only in negative as the absence of conflict but as the pursuit of justice, the second rethought as inseparably linked to the respect for human rights and their realization which also requires a different harmonization of state sovereignty with the needs of interdependence between states. Reflecting on peace philosophically also requires to think about its relationship with religious freedom for the construction of just societies. (Francesco Viola, 2013 and 2017).
Evolution is not only imposed with regard to international law but also with regard to the world and the philosophy of education: it is no longer possible to derogate from forming the new generations to rethink peace and justice. One way forward seems to be education to reflective cosmopolitanism (David Hansen, Gerard Delanty) as realized in the curriculum of Philosophy for Children PEACE (Philosophical Enquiry Advancing Cosmopolitan Engagement).
The curriculum in fact, for today's times expresses the vocation of the Philosophy for Children to promote people who think for themselves and therefore are citizens builders of their own democracy, making their own the implications related to Social Justice Pedagogy and taking up the challenge of rethinking concepts tradition/innovation, global/local, rights and promoting peace (Lipman,2000) . In such a way philosophy after being one of the disciplines can return in the "agorà", where they are forged communities, or "school". (Kennedy, 2012).
German Melikhov, Alexey Melikhov (Kazan/Russia)
The world is the visible space that surrounds us. A person survives by adapting to the environment. The world around us is more of a rival than an assistant, a source of desires and anxieties. The most important thing in this life is to cling to what’s your own. Visible space divides and warps into a countable number of worlds. Each person, social group and government has their own interests and therefore has their own world. The natural state of the world is a conflict, a clash of different worlds. If this state of affairs corresponds to reality (and it is difficult to argue with it), the language of jurisprudence, the language of treaties and agreements, reinforced by large signatures, is the best form of peace. The world is not only a visible environment, but also an order brought into it by legal norms. Peace is a treaty proclaiming the value of an agreement.
Philosophy goes beyond jurisprudence. The practical needs regulated by agreements is not the entirety of the world. Everything around – people, their institutions and things – is not the entirety of the world. What is the world? Probably, the world cannot be reduced to just one thing – a legal norm, a moral law, the immediate environment, the current situation or something else. Everything belongs to the world. The world is everything, the entirety, not reducible to any one of its parts. What is happening, its past or future, does not represent the essence of the world. The world extends beyond any entity – deeds, words, thoughts, things, circumstances. A redivision of the world, trade wars, the collapse of liberal or traditional values, etc. These certainly important problems requiring urgent solutions belong to the current situation and history, but not to the entirety of the world. We definitely depend on the circumstances and decisions made, but this is not the entirety of the world.
In the "entirety of the world", the current state of affairs correlates with the phenomenon of the world itself. One of Plotinus, transcendental to entity, indicates the integrity of the world, but does not coincide with it. In this case, the integrity is immanent to the world. Integrity manifests itself as the world. The entirety of the world resembles the Kantian thing-in-itself. It resembles it in the way that just like the thing-in-itself, the world embodies the fullness of reality that cannot be squeezed into our ideas. However, to the entirety of the world the opposition of subject and object is unknown. A person is afflicted (embraced and captured) by the world even before they thought about something or did something. A person is beyond entity – they are the world.
The question of the entirety of the world appears as a question of "being" (M. Heidegger) – the horizon of meanings that defines our relationship with reality, how we perceive it and live in it. The being of the world takes the form of an event of its discovery. The place where this event happens is philosophy. Protecting the world is not only an agreement, but also a thought open to the whole world (Dasein) or reality. Every person is a philosopher to the extent that one does not allow oneself to linger on the "current situation" for too long, correlating it with the horizon of meanings, which is ever-changing and always new. Reality and the "current situation" are not the same thing.
The question of the entirety of the world also appears as a question of "life" (M. Henry). In the M. Henri’s phenomenology of life, the openness to the entirety of the world (Dasein) is correlated with its own source called the "life". Dasein is determined by an immanent, self-afflicted life. The world is not only a horizon of meanings, but also life that has an impact on itself like on me and has impact on me as on itself. A world endowed with life, while staying true to itself, grows – it is always larger than itself. Being alive, we will certainly make contact – with the world as ourselves and with ourselves as the world.
Perhaps the outside world today lacks a sense of life – a steady contact with reality. A world that extends beyond entity, a world full of life, in fact, is contact.
Lukas Meyer (Graz/Austria)
The global carbon budget is limited by the aim of staying well below 2°C of global warming. Countries’ contributions to mitigate global warming translate to claims of their specific shares of the remaining budget. In my presentation I discuss what justice requires in terms of the allocation of this budget, and show how minimal fairness constraints quantitatively condition the allocation of this global budget across countries. Minimal fairness requirements include securing basic needs, attributing historical responsibility for past emissions since 1995 the latest, accounting for the unequal benefits from historical emissions, and not exceeding countries’ societally feasible emission reduction rate.
Das globale Kohlenstoffbudget wird durch das Ziel beschränkt, deutlich unter einer 2°C Erhöhung der Erderwärmung zu bleiben. Die von Einzelstaaten zu leistenden Beiträge beschränken deren Anteile am verbleibenden Budget. In meinem Vortrag erläutere ich, was Gerechtigkeit bei der Aufteilung dieses Budgets verlangt, und zeige, dass die Berücksichtigung von minimalen Gerechtigkeitsforderungen die Anteile der Länder entscheidend bestimmte. Zu diesen Forderungen zählen die globale Sicherung von Grundbedürfnissen, die Übernahme von Verantwortung für Emissionen seit spätestens 1995, die Berücksichtigung ungleicher Begünstigungen aus historischen Emissionen und die Berücksichtigung maximal durchführbarer Emissionsminderungsraten.
Nenad Miscevic (Maribor/Slovenia)
The present-day political crisis, involving problem of migration and the rise of populism in the host states points to the need of global solution. Only a strong global political arrangement can guarantee peace and justice in the long term. This is a thesis that would be rational to accept in a fair debate by parties of various political persuasions. Ideally, we can imagine a contractualist debate between, say, political realists and nationalists and cosmopolitans, and argue that some version of the thesis should be ultimately acceptable for all. This would be a contractualist defense of moderate cosmopolitanism, in the methodological spirit of Scanlon and Habermas.
In the present panel we offer a brief sketch of the relevant argument. Considerations of peace and security point to the need of a global control that goes way beyond the competencies of any single nation-state no matter how powerful and well-intentioned. Considerations of justice point to the need of global redistributive agenda, equally beyond the competencies of any single nation-state.
Desireé Eva Moodley (Capetown/South Africa)
The 21st century is awakening to a new revolution. The Fourth Industrial Revolution, the rapid advancements of technologies, is blurring the lines between physical, digital, and biological spheres (McNulty, 2018, p.1). This phenomenon will alter societies (Schwab, 2015). Higher education’s response is inevitable. But the complexity of 21st century classroom settings of diversity, multiculturalism and pluralism, challenge higher educators. Coupled with the search for identities and cries for justice and equity, this phenomenon demands new ways of preparing pre-service teachers for high cognition and social access of their learners. Twenty-first century competences like critical and creative thinking, communication, collaboration, media and technology may be a most crucial explicit requirement for pre-service teacher education today. The purpose of this study is to develop a possible operational framework of design principles for 21st century competences in pre-service teacher education. As an exploration, the development especially within emerging democracies like South Africa is crucial if youth are to thrive in a duality of creating and being created by 21st century society. Employing Vygotsky’s (1978) constructivism, Matthew Lipman’s (1980) Philosophy for Children, and the three emerging frameworks, Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) (Mishra & Koehler, 2006), A Model for Academic and Social Cognition (SOW) (Schiering, Bogner & Buli-Holmberg, 2008), and Partnership of 21st Century Learning (Soulé & Warrick, 2015), further informed by the South African National Development Plan 2030 and The United Nations Sustainable Development Goal 4 – Quality Education, this study’s possible contribution may be both intra- and inter-disciplinary across higher education.
Jinwhan Park (Hiroshima/Japan)
The problem of political disagreement in Korea is so serious that it weakens social stability. Nevertheless, no appropriate pedagogy can be found in school education. Community of inquiry is one of the alternatives. However, the community of inquiry approach introduced in Korea is known to be inadequate for resolving political disagreement due to its strong logical and scientific nature. This approach is the normative community of inquiry approach. The approach is justified because the epistemological premise is different from the scientific community of inquiry. If the scientific community of inquiry is based on rationality in a relatively narrow sense, the normative inquiry community presupposes the rationality of the broader meaning. This is based on the later works of Dewey.
Scientific community of inquiry presuppose all political disagreement can be solved through inquiry process like a scientific problem solving. It presuppose there .is undisputable truth. But in plural democracy it is persuasive to see that disagreement is not a matter of truth and falsehood but two different political and social constructs.
Normative community of inquiry focuses pragmatic practice instead of realistic truth. Political disagreement occurs when we confront obstacles for our purpose. Different positions have different hypotheses for this problem solving. Successful problem solving is the criteria for truth.
Scientific approach neglects personality issue in community inquiry process. Community itself and personality of community members continuously change through inquiry process. Self-critic, self-correction and self-control represents the growth of personality. Normative approach considers growth of personality in community inquiry.
Scientific approach also has perceptive limits of problematic situation. Dewey call it qualitative dimension of situation which include emotional and complicated character which cannot be quantified.
Normative community of inquiry admits not only emotion as part of rationality but also admits imagination as part of it. When we percept problematic situation or understand different position, we use our emotional sense and imagination.
Barbara Reiter (Graz/Austria)
In this paper I ask what human life plans are and if and how they do and should change due to what is called the anthropocene, i.e. the time we have lived in characterized by some as the first era in the history of planet Earth showing severe signs of being influenced by systemic human use and overuse of ressources. I analyse John Rawls’ conception of the life plan and criticize it as too narrow. I argue that it needs openness to contingency and interprete the anthropocene as such a basic contingency of our lifes that we need to respond to. Responding thus means to take responsibility even if we as individuals are not the causal origins of the outcomes we feel responsible for to deal with.
Laurance J. Splitter (Melbourne/Australia)
In this paper, I offer conceptions of narrative and dialogue which help us to interpret the perspectives and behaviour of those drawn to various forms of tribalism and populism, and suggest ways in which we might move beyond the negativity and sense of hopelessness which are becoming ever more widespread. I will also examine narrative and dialogue in the context of school-based education, arguing that we must do more to challenge the narrative mind-sets that students bring to the classroom from an early age – as part of their broader social environment. Such mind-sets are, inevitably, determined and constrained by those institutions – national, religious, ethnic, cultural…. – with which they identify. Indeed, these institutions have their own narratives which become intertwined with the narratives of our own lives.
I regard dialogue as a type of discourse which belongs to the all-pervasive narrative structures that frame our experiences and our reflections on those experiences (viewing our lives in narrative terms follows from seeing ourselves as agents committed to making sense (meaning) of our lives). However, dialogue is conditioned by several distinctive features to which narrative, in general, is not bound. Specifically, participants in dialogue regard one another as persons, which has both normative (moral) and epistemological implications, including: being aware of others as a condition of self-awareness; logical consistency, truthfulness and the pursuit of truth (knowledge) as normative ideals; intellectual humility (“I/We might be wrong”); and the obligation to confront the “Big Questions” (“What do I stand for?”, “What are our responsibilities to others?”, “What kind of world do we want to live in and leave for future generations?”…).
In distinguishing between narrative and dialogue, I part company with one influential view of the former, according to which our lives and our identities are construed in terms of some kind of narrative quest.
Yayoi Sutani, Satoshi Higuchi (Hiroshima/Japan)
In this paper, we consider John Dewey’s perspective of language in order to make new suggestions for educational practices including philosophy for children. We refer to Ferdinand de Saussure’s language theory with Japanese linguist Keizaburo MARUYAMA’s interpretations to consider Dewey’s language theory. In the conclusion, the following points will be presented:
1) Dewey comprehended the language’s aspect of langage or human’s symbolization competence. His attention to language was not restricted to langue as a grammatical system;
2) Dewey regarded language as a tool to construct experiences, that is to say “learning.” In this process, self-awareness of experiences and sense-making in them would significantly occur. Mediate experiences with language as a tool would overcome the limitation of immediate experiences. Furthermore, the secondary experience as an intelligent investigation would deepen the primary experience in a cycle of both experiences; and
3) Dewey’s ambiguous, that is, negative and positive attitudes to language education were generally misinterpreted, which brought an inadequate conception of the importance of experience rather than language. Dewey criticized the formalistic language teaching in school. Dewey, however, insisted the importance and necessity of reading books, because such intelligent linguistic abilities would make experiences meaningful.
According to this understanding of the significance of language in Dewey’s educational theory, which is a key notion for social constructivist learning, philosophy for children, for example, should use various materials of language symbolization such as picture, music, body movements etc., not be restricted to ordinary language activities. As its result, educational practices such as philosophy for children would extend themselves to the contents of various school subjects. Philosophy for children would combine with any topics from existing school subjects, including peace and justice. It is not any more a special activity outside school subjects. We would like to propose the possibility of philosophical artistic activities as an example.